Multiple Intelligences and Technology

Compiled by the Issues in Technology class at

Morningside College, Sioux City, Iowa Summer 2001 

Tami J. Little, Facilitator


Musical Rhythmic
Mathematical Logical
Visual Spatial
Verbal Linguistic

General Resources




Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence Intelligence

ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (e.g. ball play, balancing beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information. 

Their skills include:

dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to create or build, expressing emotions through the body

Possible career paths:

Athletes, physical education teachers, dancers, actors, firefighters, artisans

It's hard for kids with this intelligence to sit still in front of a computer for very long. There are ways to capture their interest, though. Just make sure that you limit the time that you require kids to actually be sitting and staring at the screen, because their level of learning will decrease the longer they stay in one position. 

Use software that has lots of movement, bright colors and images, and can be used in small bits, over time. Or have them look up statistics and interesting facts about famous people who use their bodies for sport or expression (dancers, athletes, mimes, actors, etc).

Always relate what they are seeing to what they can do, and provide activities to supplement the technology in some way, activities which encourage movement and expression, like plays, skits, puppet shows, and sport-type games.

Programs such as "Lego Logo" offer ways to connect the computer to external manipulatives, such as Lego blocks with gears, wheels, and motors. Starting with these, students can invent innumerable kinds of machines to control through computer programs they develop themselves.

Other kinds of programs that combine kinesthetic activity with the development of analytical thinking are Broderbund's "Science Toolkit" and IBM's "Personal Science Lab." The student creates physical or scientific experiments, the results of which are analyzed and displayed on a computer screen. These are just the beginning of a whole new series of computer programs that are connected to physical activities.

"Electronic field trips." may not involve the physical body, yet students feel as if they are actually exploring the depths of the sea or the inside of a volcano as they accompany researchers in areas where very few can go. Recently, classrooms of students, linked electronically to explorers investigating the tectonic plates in the depths of the Mediterranean, were able to communicate with the scientists, ask questions, or request the viewing of areas or objects more closely. The students were almost there. 



Obviously, working in groups on a piece of software or on a project relying heavily on technology would be a good way to foster growth and development of this intelligence. Some other techniques: 

Use presentation programs like Hyperstudio or PowerPoint for projects. Presentation skills are vital in school-based education environments and beyond.

Have students e-mail each other at intervals during a unit to convey questions, thoughts, or ideas. Create an online group-based journal! Have Web-based journaling for all the students.

Create a survey of the students in your class, or even in your school. You can enter this information into a database, and manipulate it in a spreadsheet later on (logical-mathematical intelligence, too!)! 



There is so much about computers that appeals to this intelligence. There are many websites that students can visit for help with math and science homework and problems, "Ask Dr. Math" being one of them. The internet is a great resource for science and math resources in general, and most students will enjoy going to the world wide web for help with homework and real-life problems. 

The software available is amazing, ranging from physics simulations to geometric programs that create tesselations and much more. As a teacher, you need to carefully analyze each piece of software before presenting it to your students. The software shouldn't just be used as an aside to a lesson. Good software will provide lessons on its own, and the students will be learning concepts, not just trying to apply them using a new format. 

To develop other intelligences while using math and science at the same time, try having students verbalize math problems, geometric proofs, scientific experiments, and equations or formulas. Have other students proof their peers' work, and try to duplicate the idea they were trying to present. 

How Technology Enhances Howard Gardner's Eight Intelligences 
Introduction by Dave Keefe for Contribution by Dee Dickinson

Technology That Enhances Logical-Mathematical Intelligence 
by Dee Dickinson

Logical-Mathematical intelligence can be exercised and developed through many challenging and innovative kinds of multimedia technology- Students of every ability level can learn effectively through interesting software programs that offer immediate feedback and go far beyond drill and practice and "workbooks on computers." Many of them offer challenging opportunities to exercise and develop higher order thinking skills that are essential in problem-solving. Following are a few examples of the many outstanding programs that are now available.

Edmark's "Millie's Mathhouse" is a delightful and successful computer program that introduces number and math concepts to preschool and early elementary children. It is alive with color, sounds, and graphics and works with a touch screen. Children are introduced to essential math concepts as they build animated bugs, operate a cookie machine, count wiggling critters, and make patterns with talking animals and shapes. As they explore and discover, children learn about numbers, shapes, sizes, patterns, and problem-solving.

For primary students, IBM's "Math and More" programs introduce students to patterns and relationships, geometry, probability, and statistics through highly motivating video, manipulative, and printed materials.

Wings for Learning/Sunburst's "King's Rule" and "Safari Search" for older children develop sequencing abilities and logical-mathematical thinking through visual-spatial, manipulative tasks that are in the form of thought-provoking and challenging games.

Broderbund's "Geometry, Physics and Calculus" software make abstract and sometimes difficult subjects more concrete and easily understandable as students manipulate colorful graphics. Videodiscovery's multimedia videodiscs, "The Physics of Auto Collisions" and "The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse," use real events to relate physics to practical applications. As students analyze real world events in scientific and mathematical terms, the principles of physics become more meaningful and relevant.

"The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," developed by Vanderbilt University's Cognition and Technology Group, provides additional rich contexts for developing mathematical thinking and problem solving about real-world situations through what is being called "anchored instruction." At the present time, there are six dramatic episodes on videodisk (with six more to come), that present complex mathematical problems for students to solve.

One of the first adventures, 'Rescue at Boone's Meadow," presents the task of transporting a critically wounded eagle to a veterinary 65 miles away as quickly as possible. Because of the difficult terrain, students must figure out optimal combinations of using a truck, ultralight aircraft, and hiking, taking into consideration fuel, payload, weight, and different starting points. The students use a combination of the random-access videodisk, maps, and computers to generate alternative solutions. Fifth-grade students of average ability have been fascinated with the task, and have been motivated to solve it with solutions that require over 15 steps.

In many of these new "authentic learning" projects, learners become contributors to the collaborative knowledge base of the community. In the Global Lab project organized by the Technical Education Research Centers (TERC), an international group of teachers, high school students, and global-change researchers are collaborating in studying local and world ecological change using instruments such as ozonometers, ion-selective probes for soil and water monitoring, and field data loggers. Students learn to collect, analyze, and report data that is used by the scientists. And in the MicroObservatory project at Harvard University, secondary school students are using remote computer-controlled optical telescopes to do their own research projects in astronomy.

Increasing numbers of multimedia software programs are focused on developing the critical and creative thinking skills of students. IBM's "Modern Solutions" and "Wrinkers" (combination of thinking and writing) offer challenging projects that utilize logic, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation in creating and problem-solving. Seymore Papert's "Lego Logo" program also offers an opportunity for students to develop the skills of analysis and logic as they learn to use a new computer programming language and apply it to controlling the movement of Lego "machines" that they create.

"Learn Smart" is a new software program developed by Key Technologies that is based on Guilford/Meeker's Structure of Intellect methods of developing intellectual skills. The program assesses individual strengths and weaknesses in cognition and offers strategies to strengthen intellectual powers. It is appropriate for students at all ability levels.

Stanley Pogrow's "HOTS" (Higher Order Thinking Skills) program combines Socratic thinking in small groups with activities utilizing computer technology- This program- focused on learning how to understand and problem-solve, demonstrates clearly that most students, including the "at risk" and "learning disabled," are capable not only of learning the basic skills, but of developing and applying higher order thinking skills in the process.

A number of recreational games also have much to offer in the way of new intellectual challenges. For example, Sierra's "Lost Mind of Dr. Brain" exercises all of the intelligences in challenging puzzles and problem-solving activities. Logical and mathematical skills, anticipatory thinking and quick decision-making, symbolic thinking, effective reasoning, and other higher order thinking processes are exercised as players meet a variety of unexpected challenges. As they unscramble Inverted melodies, break codes, navigate through mazes, use different retrieval systems to find scrambled files, and manipulate and rotate mental images, players get a "total brain workout." They have options of playing on several levels of difficulty, and can access helpful "scaffolding" hints from Dr. Brain's lab assistant. When used in classrooms, teachers may wish to follow with related activities to assure that transfer of skills will occur and persist.

Many of the programs described above are consistent with the current recommendations of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and with current research on "situated cognition." The focus of this research is on demonstrating that learning and thinking are always situated in a context, that knowing and doing are strongly linked, and, as a result, that authentic learning activities and direct experience provide rich opportunities for successful learning.

Multiple Intelligences and Technology

by Jack Edwards, State President-Elect

Logical/Mathematical Intelligence

The capacity to use numbers effectively and to reason well.


Highly developed in: mathematicians, tax accountants, statisticians, scientists, computer programmers, and logicians. 

Students with a high degree (of logical/mathematical intelligence): Reason things out logically and clearly; Look for abstract patterns and relationships; Like brain teasers, logical puzzles, and strategy games; Like to use computers; Like to classify and categorize 

They may benefit from: Database and spreadsheet programs; Problem solving software; Computer programming software; strategy game formats/simulations; Calculators; Multimedia authoring programs

Multiple IntelligencesBy Lesson
Please send questions and suggestions to Eileen Heasley & Sherri Johnson

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

·Software to Investigate:FromSunburstGames recommended for problem solving and higher-order thinking: Factory Deluxe (for sequence, patterns), Data Explorer (11 different types of graphs), Math Undercover, Sun Buddy (Math Skills for K-3)

·The National Math Trail: Brand new project-based learning opportunity. Students across the United States are hitting the math trail to identify how math is used in their communities.

·TEAMS: project uses an array of technologies to engage students in constructing knowledge about the uses of math and visualizing the abstract.


Multiple Intelligences

8 Kinds of Smart

5. Math Logic Problem-Solving 

Cross-age tutoring 
Math Mall - Build team stores 
Measure parts of the body 
Lego Blocks 
Measure parts of the room 
Cut out geometric shapes 
Geo boards 
Use string to lay out dinosaur shapes 
String Art 
Use maps for directions 
Cuisenaire Rods 
Set up compass courses 
Set up treasure maps using measurement 
Build compasses 
Graphing activities 
Metric and English rulers 
Build clocks 
Graph paper 
Math Olympics Day 
Puzzles, play money 
Timed relay races 
Flashcards, workbooks 
Kitchen Math - Learn fractions by cutting vegetables 
Rubberbands, Dice 
Garage Math - Learn measurement by working around the house 
Playing cards 
Brain teasers 
Links, Maps, Construction paper 
Sorting/Classifying manipulatives 
Marbles, beans 
Building models 
Base Ten Blocks 
Geometric shapes 
Straws, compasses 
Stopwatches, clocks 
Pattern Blocks 
T square

Logical/Mathematical Intelligence

Associated with what we call "scientific thinking." Deductive/inductive thinking/reasoning, numbers and recognition of abstract patterns.

Such people are good at figuring things out, analyzing things, and solving problems in subjects like math and science.They probably like things like figuring out patterns, matching things that are alike, math, science, crossword puzzles, and solving problems.


Musical Rhythmic

The software available to professional musicians these days can allow people to look at the wave(s) a sound makes, take away or add little bits of that wave to manipulate the sound in some minute way, and put different sounds together in an exact science. Of course, this software is very expensive, but less expensive versions of this kind of software are available, and it can allow students to really see what makes music, not just on an instrumentation level, but on a physical level as well. 

Have students layer and manipulate sounds created by a synthesizer. Programs can combine timbres, and even individual frequencies and wavelengths. Each group can create a melody using such software. Try having different groups put their melodies together. Ask them which ones sound good together, and why? Let them figure out how to make harmonies and melody lines work

Musical Learners

· Enjoy playing instruments, singing songs, drumming 

·      Like the sounds of the human voice, environmental sounds and instrumental sounds 

· Learn easier if things are set to music or to a beat 

Suggestions for Parents 

· Allow your child to select a recording at the local music store 

· Encourage your child to sing along or clap to the rhythm of music 

· If possible, involve your child in some type of music lessons 

· Provide opportunities to attend concerts and musicals 

· Have sing-alongs 

The development of musical intelligence can be enhanced by technology in the same way that verbal fluency is enhanced by word-processors. Fledgling composers can hum a tune into synthesizers such as the EPS 16 from Ensoniq or the SZ-1 from Casio, for example, and have it sound like one of many instruments, fully accompanied by an electronic rhythm section. The Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, makes it possible to compose for and orchestrate many different instruments through the computer. Pyware's "Music Writer" and Activision's "Music Studio" are examples of software programs that also make such magic possible.

"Band-in-a-Box" by PG Software lets students improvise backups to familiar jazz, pop, rock, and folk music. It also features editing capability so that students can create their own musical styles

It is being discovered that digital technology, which combines digital audio with visual input, makes it possible for many students to learn about elements of music that are often too complicated for beginners to understand. One example is the Voyager Company's interactive multimedia compact disc of Beethoven's "Ninth Symphony," which enables the listener to understand the piece musically, historically, culturally, and politically.

Naturalist Intelligence

Julia Cunningham and Ron Marshall


As electronic technologies become increasingly available and part of our lives, it is essential to recognize that they do not replace human interaction and experience in the natural world. They are, however, excellent tools that facilitate scientific investigation, exploration, and other naturalist activities.Often it is not possible for students to actually explore some sites such as the depths of the Mediterranean Sea.

Among the many organizations offering exciting on-line learning adventures and explorations are: 





Issues in Technology

July2, 2001



Verbal Linguistic

Jenny & Pam

Verbal Linguistic - The capacity to use words effectively, either orally or in writing.

These kids are the ones that everyone considers to be "smart." Of course, now we know better, and we say that they are just "book smart," or "word smart." These kids are going to do well using many kinds of applications, but especially those that have the most use in completing assigned work. These kids are most likely to use word processing programs on the computer than anything else. They will know how to manipulate the text, do crazy things like create columns and outlines that actually work and look good, and lots of other cool stuff that we as teachers can take advantage of!

To use their linguistic intelligence to benefit the entire class, you might want to consider making these students the "secretaries" or recorders of any group they work with. If you are creating a newsletter in your classroom, for example, have these kids type in everyone's contributions and work on the layout. They will be able to write some excellent articles as well!

To help them develop other intelligences using the computer, have them begin to create graphics using some a paint program. Or, better yet, challenge them to create a hyperstack using hyperstudio or powerpoint, using lots of illustrations and graphics. They will have fun, develop their spatial intelligence, and if they work in groups, their interpersonal intelligence, too.

To implement a linguistically-intelligent based activity: a simple idea might be the "class poem," where stations are set up at a few different computers. Each station will have the beginning of a stanza, just a phrase like "I am," "I see," "I think," and each student will add something to each station. As a group, put the poem together representing the entire class's ideas on a theme, and have them write their own individual poems, too, using the word processor as an editing and proofing tool.

Highly developed in: story-tellers, orators, politicians, poets, playwrights, editors, and journalists. 

Students with a high degree (of verbal linguistic intelligence): Think in words; Learn by listening, reading, and verbalizing; Enjoy writing; Like books, records, and tapes; Have a good memory for verse, lyrics, or trivia 

They may benefit from: Word processors that allow voice annotations; Desktop publishing programs; Programs with speech output; Programs which encourage them to create poetry, essays, etc.; Multimedia authoring; Using videodiscs and barcode programs to create presentations; Tape recorders;


Visual-Spatial Intelligence

There are many activities students can perform in conjuction with basic programs almost any computer has to develop and exercise spatial intelligence. Draw and paint programs are prime examples. Have them use these programs for activities like making classroom maps to visualize different furniture arrangements, or try these approaches:

A "stimulated imaginative approach:" have students begin with an outline or stencil of a theme or an object, on their paint program, and encourage them to fill it in and add background to give it meaning, depth, and other important qualities. OR... 

"Observation drawing," where students draw an object using pencil and paper first, then transfer the image to a draw or paint program somehow, either by trying to draw it again, or using a scanner and then playing with the image to change its design. 

These activities will be excellent for developing this intelligence, and also for providing an outlet for students who have an amount of spatial intelligence already.


Technology That Enhances Visual-Spatial Intelligence 
by Dee Dickinson


Today's students have grown up watching television and are highly oriented to visual learning. Slides, overhead transparencies, filmstrips, and movies are important adjuncts to their learning. Copy-machines and computer- printers are also essential support systems for any kind of academic work. When interactive systems are also part of the learning process, students move from passive observers to active thinkers.

For example the VCR, which is available to most teachers, lends itself to active learning in numbers of ways. Rather than running a program from beginning to end, teachers can take advantage of the opportunity to stop, rewind, and replay. Frequent opportunities to discuss what students have already seen and what they are about to see next make possible the anticipatory and participatory learning that are critical to the educational process.

In presenting dramatic productions, teachers may wish to preview a film to make note of the location of various segments that can be played out of context ahead of time for the purposes of comparison and contrast. Or the film may be stopped before the ending, allowing students to guess what occurs next. The VCR is a flexible and adaptable tool that can be utilized for innumerable educational purposes.

It is a logical next step to use a newer form of technology, the interactive videodisc (IVD). The IVD combines into one system all the different media and delivery options, including lectures, slides, films, video, and computer-based instruction. The disc can hold 54,000 frames or slides on each side, 30 minutes of video, and two 30-minute audiotracks. It can randomly access from a menu any video or audio segment in 3.5 seconds, when the user presses a button or "mouse" or moves a wand over a bar graph.

Operated through a videodisc player, a television monitor or two, and a personal computer, the system is easy to learn and operate. It is flexible enough to incorporate other emerging technologies such as compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM), digital video interactive (DVI), compact disc interactive (CDI), and artificial intelligence.

In a 1986 study of a number of IVD classrooms, IBM reported a 30-to-50% increase in learning scores and a 300% increase in the number of students reaching mastery level.

Geographic Television (GTV) is currently one of the most recent developments in interactive video for the classroom. It has been developed by the National Geographic Society in association with Lucasfilm Ltd., and combines the interactive capabilities of the computer with instant access of the videodisc composed of National Geographic pictures. The subject of the first

Another pioneering educational effort is The National Geographic Kids Network, a telecommunications system that links students throughout the world. Students share information with each other about geography and experiments in science using computer-generated maps and charts.

The availability of camcorders makes it possible for students to produce their own videos as an alternative to written reports. Teachers may also produce videos as lesson presentations-- this is one way for teachers to clone themselves and reduce class size for portions of the day!

Students with special needs can also be helped in new ways through visual media. For example, those with speech difficulties can actually see their speaking patterns through IBM's SpeechViewer; from this visual feedback, they learn to make appropriate changes. Students who cannot move, may talk into the computer and it will print out what they say; others who can move but cannot speak may work with computers that say back what they have written on the screen. Children with delayed speech may be helped by using a "Wolf" board with overlays of pictures or words that "say" what they are when touched.

Computers allow visually oriented students to learn through their strengths as they interact with the technology. They can take advantage of opportunities to see and manipulate the material they are accessing or creating in many different forms before they make final copies of a written project. Such publications as Stanley's Exploring Graphic Design: A Short Course in Desktop Publishing offer helpful information on the essential principles of design and how to apply them to the preparation of publications.

By using HyperCard or LinkWay software, students can create multimedia reports. Or, they may create a report totally in visual form, combining film clips, slides, photographs, and other illustrations. These multimedia productions make learning a fascinating process, as students work with knowledge in many forms. Scholastic "HyperScreen" is one example of a software program that contains built-in fonts, clip art, and drawing tools. Each screen can contain up to 15 "hotspots," or buttons, that make it possible for users to interact with the lesson or report.

Scholastic "Slide Shop is a program for creating computerized slide shows, producing audiovisual aids for talks, video title and credit screens, or for creating illustrated pages in student-produced books. Students can design their own screens using clip art, backgrounds, borders, fonts, music, and sound effects from this program.

An increasing number of graphics programs, such as "IPMNT" or "SuperPaint," offer a wide range of experiences that can enhance artistic creativity and fluency by facilitating the technical processes involved in graphic design. Students can create their own works of art or modify existing ones as they explore such com- positional devices such as perspective, balance, and color.

Interactive videodiscs are also becoming more available in the classroom as costs for equipment and software decrease. Valuable information for teachers using this technology is available through The International Society for Technology in Education Hyper/multimedia Special Interest Group and the HyperNEXUS... Journal of HyperMedia and MultiMedia Studies published by ISTE.

An interactive disc on Picasso's painting "Guernica" produced by EduQuest is one means for exploring art. In this random-access database, the viewer can learn about the technical creation of the painting, biographical information on Picasso, images drawn from the Spanish war, and historical and mythological sources of the subject matter. The viewer can ask questions that are answered not only in visual images but also in text and voice.

Visual peripherals that reinforce topics and skills to be learned are an important part of accelerated learning classrooms, and needless to say the task of changing them frequently can be made easier through technological "teaching walls." In some newer schools, entire electronic walls may be available; in others, large screens or monitors perform this function. Teachers and students alike can be involved in creating the visuals for such displays, using material, for example, from documentary files of CNN or from live newscasts accessible through computer networks.

And on the horizon, is Virtual Reality technology-which will make all other simulations pale by comparison. Still in its infancy, this computer~generated world, offers memorable learning in new dimensions. A student dons a helmet or goggles, which contain miniature television monitors, earphones, and an electronic glove. This equipment is linked to a computer that coordinates sensory input with physical movement. The computer monitors the location of the gloved hand, and will create "real" experiences. One of the first programs allowed the participant to "walk" down a street in Aspen, observe the surroundings, and even change seasons of the year. When the participant reaches the corner by directing the electronic glove, he or she can turn right or left to continue the tour, and explore the inside of some buildings. It takes little imagination to project what such learning experiences might offer to students of physics, chemistry, biology; architecture) or medicine.

Although these visual-spatial tools are not essential for the learning process, they do offer exciting and motivating ways to engage the learner through exercising visual-spatial intelligence and make any subject more accessible to a variety of students. They will surely be of major value to students with physical disabilities or other special needs. They will, in fact, move what might otherwise, for many, remain meaningless abstractions into understandable, visible reality.

Visual/Spatial Intelligence

The ability to perceive the world accurately and to perform transformations upon one's perceptions.


Highly developed in: guides, interior designers, architects, artists, and inventors, 

Students with a high degree (of spatial intelligence):; Think in images and pictures; Like mazes and jigsaw puzzles; Like to draw and design things; Like films, slides, videos, diagrams, maps, charts 

They may benefit from: Draw and paint programs; Reading programs that use visual clues such as rebus method or color coding; Programs which allow them to see information as maps, charts, or diagrams i.e. charting capability of spreadsheet program; Multimedia programs; Science probeware


Spatial Intelligence

Consider using Inspiration for those who best learn seeing and making connect when elements are laid out graphically. 
Your students use geographic clues to discover locations posted by other students.


Self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that knowledge. 


Intelligence can include: having an accurate picture of one's strengths and limitations, awareness of one's moods and motivations, and the capacity for self-discipline. 

Students with a high degree (of intrapersonal intelligence): Seem to be self-motivating; Need their own quiet space; March to the beat of a different drummer; Learn more easily with independent study, self-paced instruction, and individualized projects and games. 

They may benefit from: Computer assisted instruction/ILS labs; Instructional games in which the opponent is the computer; Programs which encourage self-awareness or build self-improvement skills; Any programs which allow them to work independently; Brainstorming or problem solving software.

INTRAPERSONAL - children who are especially in touch with their own feelings, values and ideas. They may tend to be more reserved, but they are actually quite intuitive about what they learn and how it relates to themselves.

bluebullet.gif (326 bytes)Intrapersonal Intelligence

ability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.

Their Skills include:

Recognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams, evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their role in relationship to others

Possible Career Paths:

Researchers, theorists, philosophers

Using a computer is a very individual task. We only make technology group-based because we want students to be able to work together under limiting conditions, or we just might not have the funds available to provide each student in the classroom with their own PC (imagine that!). So computer technology always fosters this intelligence, just with the way it's designed to work. Some ideas for activities to help even more include: 

Typing journal entries or reflective essays on word processing programs. 

Working on tech-rich projects which help the students explore issues that touch them personally, or that they have strong opinions about. 

Using grammatical evaluation software to help students write creatively. 

Creating a database of self-assessment, including completed rubrics for past projects and units. 

Intrapersonal intelligence - refers to the capacity to accurately know one’s self, including knowledge of one’s own strengths, motivations, goals, and feelings (Examples: entrepreneurs, therapists, etc.).

'Plays Alone'
This person really does better alone; pursuing self defined interests. Excels at 'knowing' himself, follows instincts with confidence, and is an original. 

New information is absorbed best when the projects are individual, self-paced, and singularly oriented.

Computer programs such as Ceres' "Inspiration" are thought processors that make it possible to capture ideas and visualize the relationships between them by combining graphics with text. The programs facilitate individual brainstorming, and as ideas are generated, they can be clustered into mindmaps or into traditional outlines. Mainstay's "Think'n'Time" uses visual outlining to help structure and develop ideas at the same time as other applications are being used. Such programs allow students to manipulate ideas in whatever form best suits their thinking, and they encourage personal ownership of the educational enterprise as students become more active in developing their own learning and understanding.

Individual student learning or personal growth plans, developed collaboratively by student and teacher, encourage the development of intrapersonal intelligence. They can be well facilitated through computer programs that make possible on-going modifications or revisions, as well as the recording of accomplishments in the form of electronic or multimedia portfolios of student work.

Intelligent tutoring systems are very different from earlier models of computer-assisted learning in that they offer students choices in how to learn any topic, keep track of the students' preferred ways of learning, and eventually offer information in forms that make it possible for students to learn through their strengths as well as to exercise and improve less well-developed skills.


An Integrated Language Arts and Social Studies Unit

For Upper Elementary Through Adult Learners

Current ethnic classifications have not accurately represented the student population of the 21st century. Students will study current ethnic classifications and patterns. They will present their research findings to their class, their community, the school board and the city council. This project will develop childrens' inquiry and analysis skills. The skills will utilize family oral history, museum and internet resources, immigration agency members, and the wider community of mentors and experts as needed. Individual learning styles and multiple intelligences will be integrated within the learning process. 
Learner Description/

This unit can be successfully implemented with students of all levels from upper elementary through adult learners/teachers. Class setting: Subject matter and resources lend themselves to environments from a standard classroom setting, lab environments to a distance education course.
Time Frame:
One week to one semester, depending on how in depth one wishes to delve.
Learner Outcomes:

The Learner will: 

·use the Internet to research topics related to family histories, interview techniques, immigration issues 

·collect oral and written family histories 

·collect family artifacts relating to family history issues 

·construct a sense of importance of themselves and their family 

·develop an appreciation for the similarities and differences among classmates 

·collect, analyze, and sort data 

·use appropriate software to store and present findings 

·use appropriate technologies to collect, s tore and present findings 

·develop appropriate communication skills for collecting data 

·develop presentation skills for differing audiences 


Structure of the Learning:

This was an actual experience in a 5th grade classroom in one of the school districts in Michigan. A student was to take the MEAP test. On the student profile, the child was asked to select ethnicity (White, Black, Indian and Other). The student refused to accept any of the offered categories. The student was proud of his ethnicity. The student made the teacher and class mates aware of his dilemma; the parents started to share their concerns with the school. The students were asked to form teams to research their family history and ethnicity. Their task was to determine if the existing categories of ethnic groups were applicable to the choices they thought represented them. The finding of all the teams were compiled and submitted to the school board. The school board consequently contacted the appropriate state agencies for review and potential changes. Changes were made! We want other students to investigate and honor their family histories, add to the electronic database of information, and present their findings. 
What are the students doing?The students are collecting family histories through research including traditional, on line and oral histories. This may (and most likely) will lead to related areas of investigation, including imigration, slavery, legal and illegal "aliens", etc. 
How are you assessing the process of learning? Students will be expected to demonstrate performance-based assessment that involves students in generating their own performance criteria. 
How is the student directing the learning?The student's role is to investigate their ethnic classification and family diversity, to help problem solve, reflect on what has been learned, and teach others when possible. S/he is to explore, direct their learning, produce knowledge, and learn from others. 
What is the teacher doing?Assisting them with staying on task and refining their questions. The role of the teacher is to facilitate and guide the learner rather than directly instruct the student about their heritage. At times the student and teacher are co-learners and co-investigators. 
What is the end product the students will produce?The students will prepare multimedia presentations and web-based links to support their findings. 
How is technology integrated within this product?Word processing will 

enhance the students' writing skills, multimedia technology will address visual and aural learners, web based resources will be one of primary sources. 
How will you assess the product? See rubrics
Best Use of 

How is technology integrated within this project? A variety of electronic resources will be utilized throughout the project. Computers, Internet, audio collection, digital images and software products will all be used to help collect, store, analyze and present.
How is the technology supporting the engaged learning? As students are enabled, they must be given resources appropriate to the needs at hand. Students are familiar with many electronic resources, but not the integration of these resources to collect, store and present their work as a whole. 
How are you using two way communication with mentors or experts? A variety of audio resources, and when possible, video resources will be utilized for communication with others. 
How are you collaborating with other classrooms or students? 

·posting findings to appropriate sites encouraging the sharing of collected data 

·emailing to the authors of articles 

·joining a listserv ( 

·live chat sessions in safe environments 


1.Generate research procedures and frame works in which they will discover their answer to "Who Am I". 

2.Evaluation of their on-going journal entries. Assessment is on-going as each of the process, content areas, products are developed are monitored and evaluated based on the established rubric. Assessment is not a test at the end of a unit. It is found in all three learning components: the content, the process, and the product. It is performance based, seamless, generative, and ongoing. Students need multiple opportunities and methods to demonstrate their learning. 

Project/Unit Evaluation: 

After facilitating and guiding your students through the project/unit, ask yourself the following questions: What worked well? What wasn't as successful as I had hoped? What would I modify or change before I use the project/unit again?

Alignment with Standards:

Michigan Framework Standards:

·Content Standard 2: (Comprehending the Past) All students will understand narratives about major eras of American and world history by identifying the people involved, describing the setting, and sequencing the events. 

·Content Standard 3: (Analyzing and Interpreting the Past) All students will reconstruct the past by comparing interpretations written by others from a variety of perspectives and creating narratives from evidence. 

·Content Standard 4: (Judging Decisions from the Past) All students will evaluate key decisions made at critical turning points in history by assessing their implications and long-term consequences. 

·Content Standard 3: (Location, Movement, and Connections) All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of economic activities, trade, political activities, migration, information flow, and the interrelationships among them. 

·Content Standard 2: (Conducting Investigations) All students will conduct investigations by formulating a clear statement of a question, gathering and organizing information from a variety of sources, analyzing and interpreting information, formulating and testing hypotheses, reporting results both orally and in writing, and making use of appropriate technology. 

Uses for Multiple Intelligences:

In what ways does this proposal address the multiple intelligences of children? 

Use storytelling, write, give presentations, make audiotapes, conduct interviews
Create timelines, use thinking skills for analysis, categorize facts 
Make task cards for interviews, attend trips for historical collections, use hands-on resources to construct presentations 
Chart and graph findings, crate presentations, design scoreboards and other materials needed for presentations
Provide audio accompaniment - spoken and musical - for presentations, explain how audio tracks are needed, collect and present audio files
Conduct interviews, work in groups, use social skills for interviews and presentations, do collaborative planning, give feedback to others
Set goals, explain how-to, design and implement project aspects, self-assess work, write journal entries
Collect and organize data, keep a journal, identify relationships, describe cycles or patterns that emerge in the project 
Revised March 15, 2000