Review Sheet for Exam 3 in Computer Mapping

This is a general list of items to know for Exam 3.
Disclaimer:  This list is not intended to be a complete itemization of all questions on this exam.  
However, knowing this material will serve as a good starting point in preparation for study.

Be able to identify, know the meaning of, or otherwise give examples of the following:

Qualitative and Quantitative Information (Chapter 11 + pp. 235-238)
Data Symbols

--What kinds of data are symbolized?  (Point, Linear, Areal)

Levels of Measurement of Geographic Data
-- Nominal (type or category; no value here)
-- Ordinal (rankings; measure of importance only)
-- Interval/Ratio (rank and value; ratio scale starts at zero, interval scale starts arbitrarily)

What kinds of data may be symbolized using points, lines, or polygons?
--Examples of nominal and quantitative point symbols?  What is meant by range-grading?
--What are graduated circles?  Can other geometric shapes be graduated as well?
--What are realistic figures?  Give specific examples.
--What are name placement preference patterns for various data symbols?  Rules?
--Examples of nominal and quantitative linear map features?  What is a flow map?
--Examples of nominal and quantitative areal symbols?  What kinds of patterns are used?

Choropleth Mapping
--What exactly is a chorpleth map?  What does the word "choropleth" mean?
--Examples of themes that can be presented on choropleth maps?

--Into how many classes or categories should choropleth map data be divided?  Who decides this?
--How does one go about determining the intervals between classes?  What is a histogram?

Classed Choropleth Maps
What is done to the data in each of the following methods?  How do you decide which to use?
--Equal Steps
--Natural breaks
What is an "unclassed" choropleth map?  A prism map?  
What is meant by the statistical surface?  Isopleths?  An isometric-line map?

Map Misuse (Chapter 16) and Digital Map Applications (Chapter 20)
What kind of power do maps possess?  
--How can bad maps affect a large population?
--What are the two major ways in which map misuse can happen?
--How are map inaccuracies caused?  Examples?

Propaganda Maps
--What is meant by propaganda?  What characteristics do propaganda maps share?
--What can be the effect of an inappropriate projection on a map?
--What liberties can be taken with symbolization?  Imaginary events?  Misrepresentation?
--Why is the Peters Projection controversial?

What are digital map applications?
Electronic Atlases
--What are the pros and cons inherent in electronic atlases and traditional atlases?
--What are some of the user concerns with
electronic atlases?

--What particular capabilities would be important to have in an electronic atlas?
Automated Automobile Navigation Systems
--What are some of the pros and cons involved in these systems?
--What capabilities do they posses today?  What user concerns are important to address?
--What future enhancements might become available in these systems?

Remote Sensing From Space
(Chapter 18)
What is Remote Sensing?
--What kinds of data are collected?  What kind of sensors are used from space?

--Why are remotely sensed images often more useful in digital form?

Collection Systems
--What is a pixel?  How is a bit different from a byte?

Ground Resolution
--What is specifically meant by this term?
--Can 30-meter-square objects be detected on a 30-meter resolution system?  Why or why not?
--Rule: the smallest dimension of an object must be at least twice as great as the ground resolution
            of the system before it is likely to be detactable.
--What is thematic information extraction?  Why is it so important?

Examples of Remote Sensing Collection Systems
--What is Landsat?  Who launched it?  How many are there?
--What is the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) system on Landsat 7?  What can it do?
--What is SPOT?  Who launched it?  What unique talent does it possess?
--What does satellite-based radar imagery do?  Why is it known as an "active" system?

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