World Regional Geography with Professor Bertolas
Review Outline for Exam #1

Text Readings -- at a minimum, read these pages in preparation for taking Exam 1.

Below are class notes with supplemental review terms included.  You should learn the terms.

Definition of Geography and what Geographers do.
The study of space or place.  What is Geography's Perspective?
·  Geography: literally, “to describe the Earth.”
·  We ask three main questions:
 1)  WHERE is it located?  2)  WHY is it located there?  3)  WHO CARES?
Geographers . . .
·  Plot the location and distribution of features on the Earth’s surface.
·  Study human activity, the natural environment, and the interactions between the two.
·  Examine the relationships among states and nations.
Using Maps
What is cartography?
·  Art and science of making maps.  What is a map?  Acquire data, layout & design.  Interpret patterns.
·  How do we go from 3-D to 2-D: Map projections?  Why are all maps distorted?
·  Understand Latitude and Longitude    
What are maps?
·  Maps are Geographers’ friends!  A map is a generalization of the Earth’s surface.  What is scale?
·  Which is more useful in helping you locate a place on the Earth: A map or a globe?
Geography as a Career
What is involved at WSC in becoming a Geography major? 
What can you study?  Question: What do geographers do?  Answer: Almost anything you want!
What can you do as a Geographer? 

Regional Geography
What are Geographic Realms?  What is a Region?
·  Largest geographic units into which the inhabited world can be divided.
·  Based on the functional interaction of both the natural and cultural world.
·  Revealed by our human imprint (e.g., farms, mines, ports, dams, etc.).
·  All regions have: Area, Boundaries, & Location       
Where are you located?
·  Relative vs. Absolute?  How do you find your position or location on a map?

The Physical Setting

·  We will always set the table for a realm or region by describing its physical geography.
What is the difference between climate and weather?
The Human Setting

·  Know what is meant by the cultural landscape.  What is meant by a state?
What interests Geographers?
·  Where are humans found?  Why there?  Know Nebraska’s population and population density.
·  Raw numbers, Population Distribution, Population Density, Rate of growth, Urbanization.
Be familiar with the Top Ten countries in area and population and other numbers we discuss in class.
·  Be familiar with world population distribution and density patterns. 
Important: what happened to the size of the world's population in the 20th Century?
Growth of Population
·  Natural Increase = birth rate minus death rate
·  What is the rate of natural increase for Europe?  In the United States?  For the World?
Patterns of Development
What is development? How is development measured?  What is regional disparity?  

·  What are the differences between the core vs. periphery
·  How are developed countries classified?  Developing countries?  What is globalization?

Supranationalism: Origin?  Differences between EU and NATO?  Members?  Purpose?
Major geographic qualities:
·  Western extremity of Eurasia; Lingering world influence; High degrees of specialization
·  Manufacturing dominance; Numerous nation-states; Urbanized population; High standards of living.
What advantages does Europe have when it comes to relative location?
·  What is meant by the land hemisphere?
Know the major peninsulas (Iberian, Balkan, Scandinavian, etc.) and islands (Corsica, Great Britain, etc.).
Know the difference between the landscaping effects of Alpine glaciation and Continental glaciation.
Population: four largest countries in Europe?
When did the industrial revolution begin?  Why here?  What is infrastructure?
·  What is devolution?  Sovereignty: what groups are seeking more political strength and autonomy in Europe?  Why?
·  What is the difference between centrifugal forces and centripetal forces?  What is a nation-state?
·  Know the cultural differentiation of Europe: what are the major religions and languages in this region?

What is the difference between the core and the periphery?  
·  What is a nation-state?  What is meant by hinterland?
·  What criteria define the "European Core" as discussed in your text?
·  What is an entrepot?  What does break-of-bulk mean?  Know the two prominent entrepot cities in Europe.
·  Germany of the past, the Federal Republic of today.  May 1945 status?  Reunified, now what?
·  Population and economy today?  Outlook toward EU?  Locational advantages?  Energy supplies?
·  Historic rivalry with Germany?  Role in Europe today?
·  What is significant about the site and situation of Paris?  
·  Paris is a primate city.  Give examples of other classic primate cities in Europe.   
Benelux Countries
·  Belgium, Netherlands, (don't worry about Luxembourg): What are these three countries known for? 
What are Belgium's language problems today?
Alpine States
·  What are the differences between Switzerland and Austria?  Are they hampered by their land-locked location?
British Isles
·  "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland"  Imperial past--but how are they doing today?

Periphery of Europe
Northern Europe
·  Why is Norden considered "on the way to nowhere"?
·  Population?  Development level?  Status of women?
·  Unifying factors?  How has continental glaciation affected the landscape here?
Mediterranean Europe
·  Population: 120 million, or 20% of Europe.  Living standards?  Urbanization?
·  Generally, considered a poorer region compared to Northern or Western Europe.
·  What is unique about the Mediterranean Climate?
·  Italy: Economic contrast between the north and south; Ancona Lina; Padania and Mezzogiorno.
·  Where is Iberia?  Once the heart of world empires, how are Spain and Portugal doing today?
·  Greece: what is an archipelago?  Athens, another classic primate city.  But Greece today is tired and poor.  Why?
Eastern Europe
·  Expanded since 1991?  Contains 17 of Europe’s 39 countries now.
·  What is a shatter beltBalkanization?
Who are Slavic Peoples?  Alphabet and religious differences between the following two groups:
(1) Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Slovenes
(2) Bulgarians, Serbs, Macedonians, Russians, Belarussians, Ukrainians
Why did Yugoslavia break up?  What new, independent countries emerged?
·  What is ethnic cleansing?
·  Who are the three main ethnic minorities today in Bosnia?

PRIME DIRECTIVE: If you’re unsure about what’s important, ASK THE TEACHER!!

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