Turkish Language/Dialects in Bulgaria/Balkans and Related Materials

Compiled by Ali Eminov, Wayne State College, Wayne, Nebraska 68787 USA
Send comments, suggestions, additions to: alemino1@wsc.edu

 

Notes on Transliteration and Pronunciation

Most Bulgarian letters are pronounced as in English except for the following: Ж, ж (Ž, ž) pronounced as s in treasure; Й, й (Y, y) pronounced as y in yes; С, с (S, s) pronounced as s in soon; У, у (U, u) pronounced as oo in broom; X, x (Kh, kh) pronounced as ch in Bach; Ц, ц (C, c) pronounced as tz in quartz; Ч, ч (Č, č) pronounced as ch in church; Ш, ш (Š, š) pronounced as sh in should; Щ, щ (Št, št) pronounced as shed n washed; Ъ, ъ (Ǔ, ǔ) pronounced as u in urgent; Ю, ю (Yu, yu) pronounced as you in youth (but shorter); Я, я (Ya, ya) pronounced as ya in yard (but shorter).

 

Most Turkish letters are pronounced as in English except for the following: C, c pronounced as j in jam; ğ (soft g) is not pronounced; serves to lengthen slightly the preceding vowel; I, ı pronounced as u in urgent; İ, i pronounced as i in bit; J, j pronounced as g in montage; Ş, ş pronounced as sh in ship. Ő, ő pronounced eu as in peu; Ű, ű pronounced ew as in few and Ç, ç pronounced ch as in chat).

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__________ (1982). Balkan Halkbiliminde Türk Etkileri. Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı..

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Balim, Cigdem (1996). "Turkish as a symbol of survival and identity in Bulgaria and Turkey." In Yasir Suleiman, ed. Language and Identitiy in the Middle East and North Africa. Richmond (Surrey): Curzon, pp. 101-115.

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Bernard, Roger (1965).  "Quinze mots balkaniques d'origine turque," Linguistique Balkanique, 9 (23): 81-91.

__________ (1962). "Le vocabulaire du dialecte de Razlog," Balkansko Ezikoznanie, 4: 205-229.

Bernstein, S. B. (1968). "Les langues Turcs de la Peninsule des Balkans et l'union des langues Balkaniques," Actes du Premier Congres International des Etudes Balkaniques et Sud-est Europeennes, vol 4. Sofia: Academie Bulgare des Sciences, pp. 73-79.

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__________ (1971). "Studies and materials on Tatar dialectology in Bulgaria." Yearbook of the University of Sofia, 64 (2): 77-186. (Bulgarian)

__________ (1968). "Za bŭlgarsko-tyurskite ezikovi vruzki," Izvestiya na Instituta za Bŭlgarski Ezik, 6: 177-183.

__________ (1968). "Bulgaristan'da Türk dialektolojisi ile ilgili çalışmalar," XI. Türk Dil Kurultayında Okunan Bilimsel Bildiriler, pp. 171-177. (Ankara).

__________ (1965). "Za predturskoto tyursko vliyanie v bŭlgarskija ezik - ošte nyakolko prabŭlgarski dumi," Bulgarski Ezik, 15: 3-17.

__________ (1964). "Nekatorie osobenosti tatarskogo yazyka v gorode Varna," Balkansko Ezikoznanie, 8:69-86.

Boev, Emil and Hayriye Memova-Süleymanova, eds. (1964). Rodop Türküleri. Sofia: Narodna Prosveta.

__________ (1963). Rodop Türk Halk Masalları. Sofia: Narodna Prosveta.

__________ (1962). Rodop Manileri. Sofia: Narodna Prosveta.

Boretzky, Norbert (1976). Der Türkische Einfluss auf das Albanische. Teil 2. Worterbuch der Albanischen Turzismen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

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__________ (1995). Rečnik na Čuždite Dumi v Bŭlgrski Ezik s Ilyustracii. Sofia: Elpis.

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Çavuş, Mehmet (1984). "Bulgaristan'da Türk okulları ve ӧğretim meselesi," Türk Kültürü, 255: 441-448. 

Çebi, ĺhsan Sabri (1986). Güneydoğu Bulgaristan Türk Ağızları. G. U. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara.

Çeşmeciev, Hüseyin (1955). Türk Halk Türkuleri. Sofia: Narodna Prosveta.

Čilingirov, S. (1922-23). "Turski poslovici, pogovorki i kharakterni izrazi," Izvestiya na Narodniyat Etnografski Muzey v Sofia, 2: 157-171; 3: 59-65.

Dallı, Hüseyin (1978). Kuzeydoğu Bulgaristan Türk Ağızları Üzerine Araştırmalar. Ankara: TDK.

Dimitriev, N. K. (1927). "Zametki po bolgarsko-tureckim govoram," Dokladi Akad. Nauk SSSR, pp. 210-215.

Dimitrova, Lilyana (2004). Tursko-Bŭlgarski i Bŭlgaro-Turski Rečnik. Veliko Turnovo: Gaberoff.

Dimitrova-Todorova, Lilyana (1981). "Dve Turski zaemki v Bŭlgarski ezik," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 31 :51-52.

Drimba, V. (1957). "L'alphabet de la langue tatare parlee en Roumanie," Melanges Linguistiques Publies a l'Occasion du VIII-eme Congres International des Linguistes a Oslo du 5 Aout 1957, pp. 257-267 (Bucharest)

Dobrev, Ivan, ed. (2009). Akademičen Tursko-Bŭlgarski Rečnik. Sofia: Reva.

Duda, H. (1948). Balkantürkische Studien. Wien: Sitzungsberichte Osterr. Adad. Wiss. Phil.-His. Classe, 226.

Duridanov, Ivan (1960). "Stari Tyurski zaemki v bŭlgarskiya ezik." In Aleksandur Burmov, Dimitŭr Angelov, and Ivan Duyčev, eds. Izsledvaniya v Čest na Marin Drinov, edited by Aleksandŭr Burmov et al. Sofia: BAN, pp. 429-447.

Eckman, Janos (1962). "Kumanovo (Makedonya) Türk ağzı," Gyula Nemet Armağanı.  Ankara, pp. 111-114.

__________ (1962). "The Turkish dialects of Edirne," American Studies in Altaic Linguistics. Indiana University publications, Uralic and Altaic Series, 13: 45-69.

__________ (1960). "Dinler (Makedonya) Türk ağzı," Türk Dili Araştırmaları Yıllığı Belleten, pp. 189-204 (Ankara)

__________ (1950). "Razgrad Türk ağzı," Türk Dili ve Tarihi Hakkında Araştırmalar, vol. 1. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, pp. 1-25.

__________ (1941). "Die türkische mundart von Warna," KCsA, 3: 144-214.

 Eckman, J. ve M. Mansuroğlu (1959). "1959 yılı Trakya dioloktojisi gezi raporu," Istanbul Üniversitesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyat Fakultesi, Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Dergisi, 20, 9: 113-118.

Eminov, Ali (1983). "The education of Turkish speakers in Bulgaria," Ethnic Groups, 5: 129-150.

__________ (1989). "The elimination of Turkish language instruction in Bulgaria." In Karl Odwarka, ed. Proceedings of the Fourteenth European Studies Conference 1989. Cedar Falls, IA:  University of Northern Iowa, pp. 91-98.

Eren, Hasan (1986). "Bulgarians and the Turkish language." In Turkish Presence in Bulgaria. Ankara:  Publications of the Turkish Historical Society, 7 (87): 1-14.

__________ (1979). "Turski prinosi kŭm Bŭlgarski etimologičen rečnik." In Izsledvaniya vŭrkhu Istoriyata i Dialektite na Bŭlgarskiya Ezik. Sbornik v Pamet na Kiril Mirčev. Sofia: BAN, pp. 160-163.

__________ (1974). "Turskite zaemki v bŭlgarskiya ezik i mestnite turski govori," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 24: 409-414.

__________ (1968). "Yugoslavya Türklerinin ağız ve folkloruna dair bazı incelemeler ve kaynaklar," İstanbul Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Dergisi. 

Fiedler, W. (1977). "Die pluralbilding bei den turkischen elementen des Albanischen," Linguistique Balkanique, 20 (1-2).

Friedman, Victor (2003). Turkish Influence in Macedonia and Beyond: Studies in Contact, Typology, and Other Phenomena in the Balkans and the Caucasus. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

__________ (1977). "On the semantic and morphological influence of Turkish on Balkan Slavic."  In Papers from the Fourteenth Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society.

Gadzhanov, D. G. (1912). "Zweiter vorlaufiger berich uber die erganzende unter suchung der türkischen elemente im nordost Bulgarien in sprachlichen, kultureller und etnog.," Beziehung: a.y., 3: 1-8.

__________ (1911). "Vorlaufiger Bericht uber eine im auftrag der Balkan-Kommission der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien durch NordosBulgarien Unernommene Reise sum Zwecke von tü rkischen Dialektstudien," Anzeiger der phil.- hist. Klasse der k. Akad. d. Wiss.in Wien, 5: 1-15.

Gafer Nagi A. (1971). "Notes concernant le folklore de la population tatare de la Republique de Roumanie," Studia et Acta Orientalia, 8:145-173.

Grannes, Alf (1996). Turco-Bulgarica: Articles in English and French Concerning Turkish Influence on Bulgarian.  Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

___________ (1989). "Turkish influence on Bulgarian," International Journal of Turkish Studies, 4 (2): 223-239.

___________ (1988). "Influence du turc sur la bulgare," Bulletin de Liaison, 7, Centre d'Etudes Balkanique, (Paris), pp. 3-20.

___________ (1980).  Loan Compounds in Bulgarian Reflecting the Turkish Indefinite izafet-Construction. Det Norske Videnskaps Akademi, II, Hist.-Filos. Glasse Skrifter, n.s., 15 (Oslo).

___________ (1978). "Le redoublement Turk a m-initial en Bulgare," Linguistique Balkanique, 21 (2): 37-50.

__________ (1977).  "The use of the Turkish pluralizer -lx2r in South Slavic and Albanian," New Zealand Slavonic Journal, 11 (2).

__________ (1974). "Les turcismes dans un parler bulgare de la Bulgarie de l'est," Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 28 (2).

__________ (1973). "Bulgare de l'Est kaxpelik, bulgare de l'Ouest kaxpelak? (La realisation de l'turc dans le suffixe 'lik dans les turcismes bulgare a l'harmonie vocalique palatale par i ou e)," Scando-Slavica, 19: 207-215.

Grannes, Alf, Kjetil Ra Hauge, and Hayriye Suleymanoglu (2002). A Dictionary of Turkisms in Bulgarian.  Oslo: Novus Verlag (Instituttet for Sammenlingnende Kulturforskning)

Grigor'ev, V. G. (1952). "Bolgarskoe pisateli v bor'be protive turkizmov," Uch. zap. LGU. no. 161, Seriya  filol. nauk, 18: 149-172.

Gülensoy, Tuncer (1993). Rumeli Ağızlarının Ses Bilgisi Üzerine bir Deneme. Kayseri: Erciyeş Üniversitesi.

__________ (1981). Anadolu ve Rumeli Ağızları Bibliografyası (Anadolu-Kıbrıs-Suriye-İrak- Bulgaristan-Yugoslavya ve Romanya Türk Ağızları).  Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Milli Folklor Araştırma Dairesi.

Gülensoy, Tuncer/Ercan Alkaya (2003). Türkiye Türkçesi Ağızları Bibliografyası. Ankara: Akçağ Yayınları. Bu eserde yer alan Bulgaristan’da Türk ağızlariyle ilgili mezuniyet tezleri, pp. 155-188:

1.      Lilyana Borislava, "Most Kӧyünde Türk Konuşması"

2.      Hılmiye Faikova, "Kumaniga Ağzı"

3.      Isa Cebeci, "Grandnitsa Ağzı"

4.      Lütfi Cinaliyev, "Kuzeydoğu Bulgaristan’ın Hlebarevo Kӧyünde Konuşulan Türk Ağzı"

5.      Mustafa Mustanov, "Braniçevo Ağzı"

6.      Hüseyin Rüstemov, "Milino Ağzı"

7.      Ahmet Saliyev, "Duran Kӧyü Türk Ağzı"

8.      Recep Şabanov, "Mıdrevo Ağzı"

9.      Fehim Şakirov, "Nova Mahala Ağzı"

10.  Gülbiye Zekeriyeva, "Gorsko Slivovo’da Konuşulan Türk Ağzı"

11.  Remziye Yakubova, "Harmanlı Şehri Türk Ağzı"

Güneş, Nurcihan (2011). "Bulgaristan Türklerinin dil durumu," Modern Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi, 8 (3).

Güzel, Abdurahman (1996). Vidin Türk ağızları üzerine çalışmalar hakkında, I. UTDK 1988 Bildiriler, pp. 399-406. Ankara.

Gŭlŭbov, G. (1954). Gramatika na Turskiya Ezik. Fonetika, Morfologiya i Sintaksis. Sofia: Nauka i Izkustvo.

Guzev, V. G. (1962). "Opisanie Turetskogo govora sela Krepça, Tirgovišenskogo okrugu v Bolgarii," Balkansko Ezikoznanie, 5 (2): 57-85.

Hafiz, Nimetullah (1990). Bulgaristan Türk Halk Edebiyatı Metinleri, 2 vols. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı.

__________ (1987). Bulgaristan'da Çağdaş Türk Edebiyatı Antolojisi, 1944-1984, Vols.1 & 2. Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları.

__________ (1989). Bulgaristan'da Çağdaş Türk Edebiyatı Antolojisi, 1944-1984, Vol. 3. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları.

__________ (1979). "Kosovo Mitrovicası, Vucitirin ve Priştine Türk ağızlarının başlıca ӧzellikleri, Çevren, 6 (1-2): 75-91.

__________ (1976). "Prizren (Kosova) Türk ağzının başlıca ӧzellikleri," Çevren, 4: 29-35.

Haksoz, Cengiz (2008). "Minority language education and ethno-linguistic identity: thye case of the Turkish minority in the post-communist Bulgaria." In I. Paraskasis and A. Luneski, eds. Infusing Research and Knowledge in South-East Europe. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual South-East European Doctoral Student Conference (26-27 June 2008), Vol. I, pp. 297-309. Salonica: South-East Europeaqn Research Center.

Hasan, Hamdi (1997). Makedonya ve Kosovo Türklerince Kullanılan Atasӧzleri ve Deyimler. Ankara: Türk Dili Kurumu Yayınları, 685.

Hazai, G. (1983). Po odnos upotrebata na makedonizmite vo leksikata na Gostivarskiot turski govor. Skopje: Bigorski Naučno-kulturni Sobori.

_________ (1977). "Zur rolle des Serbischen im verkehr des Osmanischen reiches mit Osteuropa im 15-16 Jahrundert." Eurasia Nostratica. Fetschrift fun Karl Heinrich Menges. Wiesbaden, pp. 82-88.

_________ (1969).  "Za nekoi fonološki izmeni vo govorot na turskoto naselenie vo Gostivarsko," Godišen Sbornik na Filosofskiot Fakultet, pp. 237-244.

_________ (1968). "Probleme und aufgaten der Balkan-Turkologie (spraschwissenschaft)," Actes du Premier Congres International des Etudes Balkanique et Sud-est Europeennes, vol 4. Sofia: Academie Bulgare des Sciences, pp. 95-100.

_________ (1964). "O nekatoryh actualnyh voprosah issledonaniy balkano-tureckih dialektov," Balkansko Ezikoznanie, 9.

__________ (1963). "Tursko-makedonski leksički vkrstuvana i mešana," Godišen Sbornik na Filosofskiot Fakultet, 15: 349-384.

_________ (1961). "Remarques sur les rapports des langues des Balkans avec le turc Osmanli," Studia Slavica, 7:97-138.

_________ (1960). "Textes turcs du Rhodope," Acta Orientalia, 10 (2): 185-229.

_________ (1960). "Beitrage zur Kenntnis der türkischen mundarten Mazedoniens," RO, 22: 83-100.

__________ (1960). "Rumeli ağızları"

__________ (1959). "Les dialectes turcs du Rhodope," Acta Orientalia, 9 (2): 205-22.

_________   ?  "Türk ağızlarının tarihi üzerine," Türk Dili Araştırmaları Yıllığı, Belleten, pp. 205-221.

Ilčev, Stefan et al. (1982). Rečnik na Čuždite Dumi v Bŭlgarskiya Ezik. Sofia: Izdatelstvo na BAN.

Iliev, At. T. (1917). "Turski izgovor na bŭlgarski mestni imena," Spisanie na BAN, 14: 103-128.

Ireček, K. (1890). "Nyakolko beležki vŭrkhu ostatŭtsite ot Pečenezi, Kumani, kakto i tuy narečenite Gagauzi i Sŭrguši v dnešna Bŭlgariya," Periodičesko Spisanie, 32-3: 211-241.

Kakuk, Suzanne (1972). "Le dialect d'Ohrid en Macedoine," Acta Orientalia Akademia e Scientarum Hungaricae, 24 (2-3): 227-282.

__________ (1961). "Die türkische mundart aur Küstendil und Michajlovgrad," ALH, 11 (3-4): 301-386.

__________ (1961). "Türkische volkmarchen aus Küstendil," AUJ, 23 (1-2): 90-94.

__________ (1958). "Le dialecte turc de Kazanlyk," Acta Orientalia, 8 (2): 167-187, (3): 241-311.

Kalay, Emin (1998). Edirne Ili Ağızları. Ankara: TDK Yayınları.

Karahüseyinova, Emennas (1970). Sevar Ağzı. Basılmamış Mezuniyet tezi. Sofia.

Katona, L. (1969). "Le dialecte turc de la Macedonine de l"ouest," TDAY, pp. 57-194.

Kazasis, Kostas (1969). "The status of Turkisms in the present-day Balkan languages." In H. Birnbaum and Speros Vryonis, eds. Aspects of the Balkans: Continuity and Change. The Hague:  Mouton, pp. 87-116.

Keesan, C. (1979). "Renarration in Turkish and Macedonian: a study in the borrowing of verbal categories," Makedonski Jazik, 30.

Kӧprülü, M. Fuat (1934). "Şımalışarki Bulgaristanda Türkler ve Türk dili," Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Hakkında Araştırmalar, pp. 293-310.

Kowalski, T. (1940). "Rinkampfe bei den Balkantűrken," Annali del R. Instituto Superior Orientale di Napoli, Nuova Serie, 1.

________ (1938). "Les elements ethniques turcs de la Dobrudja," Rocznik Orientalistyczny, 14:66-80. (Translated into Turkish under the title, "Dobrucada Turk Etnik Unsurlar," Turk Dili-Turkce-Fransizca Belleten, 2 (13-15), Ankara, 1942)

________ (1933). Kuzeydoğu Bulgaristan Tuzluk Bӧlgesinde Konuşulan Türk Ağızlarının Özellikleri.

__________ (1933). Les Turcs et la Langue Turque de la Bulgarie du Nord-Est.  Memoires de la Commission Orientaliste de l'Academie des Sciences de Cracovie, No. 16. Krakow:  Polska Akademja Umiejetnosci.

_________ (1932). "Türkische Volkstratsel aus Nordbulgarien," Festschrift fur Georg Jacob, pp. 128-145. (Leipzig)

_________ (1929-1930). "Wyciexzka dialektologiczna do polnonowschodniej Bulgarji," Rocznik Orjentalistyczny, 7:322-323.

__________ (1926). "Osmanisch-türkische Volkslieder aus Mazedonie," ZKM, 33: 166-231.

__________ (1919). Zagadki Ludowe Tureckie. Krakow.

________ Date? "Osmanisch-türkische dialecte," Enziklopaedie des Islam, 4: 991-1011.

Krŭsteva, Vesela (2003). Tŭlkoven Rečnik na Turcizmite v Bŭlgarski Ezik s Ilyustroviten Material ot Literaturata, Folklora, Presata, Radio i Televiziyata. Sofia: Skorpio.

__________ (2000). Rečnik na Turskite Dumi v Sŭvremenniya Bŭlgarski Pečat. Sofia: LakovPRES.

Kyuchukov, H. Kyuchukov, Hristo (2006). "Code-switching among Muslim Roms in Bulgaria," International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 79: 41-51.

__________ (2002). "Code-switching among trilingual Turkish-speaking Roma children in Bulgaria," Psychology of Language and Communication, 6 (1), pp.75-84.

__________ (1994). Podgotovka za Ogramotyavane v Usloviya na Bilinguizmi pri Deca Turčeta i Ciganite v Predučilištna Vŭzrast.  Sofia: Univ. Izd-vo Sv. Kliment Okhridski.

__________ (1994). "The Turkish dialects of Muslim Roms (Gypsies) in Bulgaria," Journal of Turkology, 2(2): 305-307.

__________ (1994). "Bilingualism by birth," Dil Dergisi, 20: 44-47.

Kyuvlieva, Vesa (1980). "Morfologična adaptaciya i asimilatsiya na turskite zaemki - sŭstavitelni i prelegatelni - v bŭlgarski ezik," Izvestiya na Instituta za Bŭlgarski Ezik, 24: 78-136.

Lakova, Meri (1972). "Turcismite v Rečnik na Sŭvremenniya Bŭlgarski Knižoven Ezik ot stilistična gledna točka," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 22 (1-2).

__________ (1970). "Struktura na glagolite ot turski proizkhod v bŭlgarski ezik," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 20 (5).

Makedonska, S. (1966). "Turski frazeologični zaemki v Bŭlgarski ezik," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 16 (4): 322-339.

Mamut, E.  (1975). "Dobruca Türk ağızlarında Osmanlıca-Türkçe Unsurlar," I. Türk Dili Bilimsel Kurultayına Sunualan Bildiriler, Ankara, 27-29 Eylűl 1972, pp. 359-367.

Manevič, T. (1953 1954). "Prilog proučvanya govora Yuruka u Madeoniyi," Yuzhnoslovenski Filolog, 20 (13):333-341, 14: 333-340.

Mansuroğlu, Mecdut (1960). "Edirne ağzında yapı, anlam, deyim ve sӧz dizimi ӧzellikleri," Türk Dili Araştırmaları Yıllığı Belleten, pp. 181-187.

Markov, B. (1977). "Nekoi aspekti ot sliyanieto na turskiot ezik," Makedonski Yazik, 28.

Memova-Suleymanova, Hayriye (1983). "Fonetično, morfologična i semantična kharakteristika n slavyanskite zaemki v turskiya ezik (s ogled na narodnite govori v Turciya)," Izdanie na Sofyiskiya Universitet, pp. 119-129.

__________ (1981). "Leksikalni zaemki v turskiya ezik ot bŭlgarskiya i ot drugite slavyanski ezici," Sŭpostavitelno Ezikoznanie, 3-5: 105-135.

__________ (1976). Türk Dili Ses Bilgisi. Sofia: Kliment Okhridski Batı Filolojiler Fakültesi.

__________ (1976). "Za turcizmite v publikaciyata na Zakhari Stoyanov," Godišnik na Sofiyskiya Universitet, Fakultet po Klasičeski i Novi Filologii, 70 (3): 57-70.

Menges, Karl H. (1970, 1977, 1979). "Zum neuen Bulgarski etimologichen rechnik und der tűrkischen elementen im Bulgarischen," Zeitschrift fur Balknalogie, 7: 55-83; 13: 173-193; 15: 51-88.

__________ (1968). "Türkisches Sparchgut im Serbo-Kroatischen," Ural-Altaische Jahrbucher, 40 (1-2): 135-154.

Milev, Aleksandŭr et al. (1978). Rečnik na Čuždite Dumi v Bŭlgarskiya Ezik, 5th ed. Sofia: Nauka i Izkustvo.

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__________ (1969). "Slavyanski leksikalni elementi v narodnite govori na turskiya ezik," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 19 (2): 176-180.

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Copyright 2000-2015, Ali Eminov, Wayne State College, Wayne, Nebraska USA
Created January 13th, 2000; Last updated: January 26, 2015