Turkish Language/Dialects in Bulgaria/Balkans and Related Materials

Compiled by Ali Eminov, Wayne State College, Wayne, Nebraska 68787 USA
Send comments, suggestions, additions to: alemino1@wsc.edu

 

Notes on Transliteration and Pronunciation

Most Bulgarian letters are pronounced as in English except for the following: Ж, ж (Ž, ž) pronounced as s in treasure; Й, й (Y, y) pronounced as y in yes; С, с (S, s) pronounced as s in soon; У, у (U, u) pronounced as oo in broom; X, x (Kh, kh) pronounced as ch in Bach; Ц, ц (C, c) pronounced as tz in quartz; Ч, ч (Č, č) pronounced as ch in church; Ш, ш (Š, š) pronounced as sh in should; Щ, щ (Št, št) pronounced as shed n washed; Ъ, ъ (Ǔ, ǔ) pronounced as u in urgent; Ю, ю (Yu, yu) pronounced as you in youth (but shorter); Я, я (Ya, ya) pronounced as ya in yard (but shorter).

 

Most Turkish letters are pronounced as in English except for the following: C, c pronounced as j in jam; ğ (soft g) is not pronounced; serves to lengthen slightly the preceding vowel; I, ı pronounced as u in urgent; İ, i pronounced as i in bit; J, j pronounced as g in montage; Ş, ş pronounced as sh in ship. Ő, ő pronounced eu as in peu; Ű, ű pronounced ew as in few and Ç, ç pronounced ch as in chat).

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__________ (1982). Balkan Halkbiliminde Tűrk Etkileri. Ankara: Kűltűr ve Turizm Bakanlığı..

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Balim, Cigdem (1996). "Turkish as a symbol of survival and identity in Bulgaria and Turkey." In Yasir Suleiman, ed. Language and Identitiy in the Middle East and North Africa. Richmond (Surrey): Curzon, pp. 101-115.

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__________ (1962). "Le vocabulaire du dialecte de Razlog," Balkansko Ezikoznanie, 4:205-229.

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__________ (1968a). "Za bŭlgarsko-tyurskite ezikovi vruzki," Izvestiya na Instituta za Bŭlgarski Ezik, 6:177-183.

__________(1968b). "Bulgaristan'da Tűrk dialektolojisi ile ilgili çalışmalar," XI. Tűrk Dil Kurultayında Okunan Bilimsel Bildiriler, pp. 171-177. (Ankara).

__________ (1965). "Za predturskoto tyursko vliyanie v bŭlgarskija ezik - ošte nyakolko prabŭlgarski dumi," Bulgarski Ezik, 15:3-17.

__________ (1964). "Nekatorie osobenosti tatarskogo yazyka v gorode Varna," Balkansko Ezikoznanie, 8:69-86.

Boev, Emil and Hayriye Memova-Sűleymanova, eds. (1964). Rodop Tűrkűleri. Sofia: Narodna Prosveta.

__________ (1963). Rodop Tűrk Halk Masalları. Sofia: Narodna Prosveta.

__________ (1962). Rodop Manileri. Sofia: Narodna Prosveta.

Boretzky, Norbert (1976). Der Tűrkische Einfluss auf das Albanische. Teil 2. Worterbuch der Albanischen Turzismen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

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Burov, S. and Penka Pekhlivanova (1999). Malŭk Rečnik na Čuzhdite Dumi v Bŭlgarskiya Ezik. Veliko Tŭrnovo: Slovo.

__________ (1995). Rečnik na Čuzhdite Dumi v Bŭlgrski Ezik s Ilyustracii. Sofia: Elpis.

Cengiz, Atila (1967). "Bulgaristan'da Tűrk dili," Tűrk Kűltűrű, 59:847-852.

Çavuş, Mehmet (1984). "Bulgaristan'da Tűrk okulları ve őğretim meselesi," Tűrk Kűltűrű, 255:441-448. 

Çebi, ĺhsan Sabri (1986). Gűneydoğu Bulgaristan Tűrk Ağızları. G. U. Yűksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara.

Çeşmeciev, Huseyin (1955). Tűrk Halk Tűrkuleri. Sofia: Narodna Prosveta.

Čilingirov, S. (1922-23). "Turski poslovici, pogovorki i kharakterni izrazi,"  Izvestiya na Narodniyat  Etnografski Muzey v Sofia, 2:157-171; 3:59-65.

Dallı, Hűseyin (1978). Kuzeydoğu Bulgaristan Tűrk Ağızları Űzerine Araştırmalar. Ankara: TDK.

Dimitriev, N. K. (1927). "Zametki po bolgarsko-tureckim govoram," Dokladi Akad. Nauk SSSR, pp. 210-215.

Dimitrova, Lilyana (2004). Tursko-Bŭlgarski i Bŭlgaro-Turski Rečnik. Veliko Turnovo: Gaberoff.

Dimitrova-Todorova, Lilyana (1981). "Dve Turski zaemki v Bŭlgarski ezik," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 31:51-52.

Drimba, V. (1957). "L'alphabet de la langue tatare parlee en Roumanie," Melanges Linguistiques Publies a l'Occasion du VIII-eme Congres International des Linguistes a Oslo du 5 Aout 1957,    pp. 257-267 (Bucharest)

Dobrev, Ivan, ed. (2009). Akademičen Tursko-Bŭlgarski Rečnik. Sofia: Reva.

Duda, H. (1948). Balkanturkische Studien. Wien: Sitzungsberichte Osterr. Adad. Wiss., Phil.-His. Classe, 226.

Duridanov, Ivan (1960). "Stari Tyurski zaemki v bŭlgarskiya ezik." In Aleksandur Burmov, Dimitŭr Angelov, and Ivan Duyčev, eds. Izsledvaniya v Čest na Marin Drinov, edited by Aleksandŭr Burmov et al. Sofia: BAN, pp. 429-447.

Eckman, Janos (1962a). "Kumanovo (Makedonya) Tűrk ağzı," Gyula Nemet Armağanı.  Ankara, pp. 111-114.

__________ (1962b). "The Turkish dialects of Edirne," American Studies in Altaic Linguistics. Indiana University publications, Uralic and Altaic Series, 13:45-69.

__________ (1960). "Dinler (Makedonya) Tűrk ağzı," Tűrk Dili Araştırmaları Yıllığı Belleten, pp. 189-204 (Ankara)

__________ (1950). "Razgrad Tűrk ağzı,"  Tűrk Dili ve Tarihi Hakkında Araştırmalar, vol. 1. Ankara: Tűrk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, pp. 1-25.

__________ (1941). "Die turkische mundart von Warna," KCsA, 3:144-214.

 Eckman, J. ve M. Mansuroğlu (1959). "1959 yılı Trakya dioloktojisi gezo raporu," Istanbul Űniversitesi Tűrk Dili ve Edebiyat Fakultesi, Tűrk Dili ve Edebiyatı Dergisi, 20, 9:113-118.

Eminov, Ali (1983). "The education of Turkish speakers in Bulgaria," Ethnic Groups, 5:129-150.

__________ (1989). "The elimination of Turkish language instruction in Bulgaria." In Karl Odwarka, ed.    Proceedings of the Fourteenth European Studies Conference 1989. Cedar Falls, IA:   University of Northern Iowa, pp. 91-98.

Eren, Hasan (1986). "Bulgarians and the Turkish language." In Turkish Presence in Bulgaria. Ankara:  Publications of the Turkish Historical Society, 7 (87):1-14.

__________ (1979). "Turski prinosi kŭm Bŭlgarski etimologičen rečnik." In Izsledvaniya vŭrkhu Istoriyata i Dialektite na Bŭlgarskiya Ezik. Sbornik v Pamet na Kiril Mirčev. Sofia: BAN, pp. 160-163.

__________ (1974). "Turskite zaemki v bŭlgarskiya ezik i mestnite turski govori," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 24:409-414.

__________ (1968). "Yugoslavya Tűrklerinin ağız ve folkloruna dair bazı incelemeler ve kaynaklar," İstanbul Űniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakűltesi, Tűrk Dili ve Edebiyatı Dergisi. 

Fiedler, W. (1977). "Die pluralbilding bei den turkischen elementen des Albanischen," Linguistique  Balkanique, 20 (1-2).

Friedman, Victor (2003). Turkish Influence in Macedonia and Beyond: Studies in Contact, Typology, and Other Phenomena in the Balkans and the Caucasus. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

__________ (1977). "On the semantic and morphological influence of Turkish on Balkan Slavic."  In  Papers from the Fourteenth Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society.

Gadzhanov, D. G. (1912). "Zweiter vorlaufiger berich uber die erganzende unter suchung der tűrkischen elemente im nordost Bulgarien in sprachlichen, kultureller und etnog.," Beziehung: a.y., 3:1-8.

__________ (1911). "Vorlaufiger Bericht uber eine im auftrag der Balkan-Kommission der  kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien durch NordosBulgarien  Unernommene Reise sum Zwecke von tűrkischen Dialektstudien," Anzeiger der phil.- hist. Klasse der k. Akad. d. Wiss.in Wien, 5:1-15.

Gafer Nagi A. (1971). "Notes concernant le folklore de la population tatare de la Republique de Roumanie," Studia et Acta Orientalia, 8:145-173.

Grannes, Alf (1996). Turco-Bulgarica: Articles in English and French Concerning Turkish Influence on Bulgarian.  Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

___________ (1989). "Turkish influence on Bulgarian," International Journal of Turkish Studies, 4 (2):223-239.

___________ (1988). "Influence du turc sur la bulgare," Bulletin de Liaison, 7, Centre d'Etudes Balkanique, (Paris), pp. 3-20.

___________ (1980).  Loan Compounds in Bulgarian Reflecting the Turkish Indefinite izafet-Construction. Det Norske Videnskaps Akademi, II, Hist.-Filos. Glasse Skrifter, n.s., 15 (Oslo).

___________ (1978). "Le redoublement Turk a m-initial en Bulgare," Linguistique Balkanique, 21 (2):37-50.

__________ (1977).  "The use of the Turkish pluralizer -lx2r in South Slavic and Albanian," New Zealand Slavonic Journal, 11 (2).

__________ (1974). "Les turcismes dans un parler bulgare de la Bulgarie de l'est," Acta Orientalia  Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 28 (2).

__________ (1973). "Bulgare de l'Est kaxpelik, bulgare de l'Ouest kaxpelak? (La realisation de l'turc dans le suffixe 'lik dans les turcismes bulgare a l'harmonie vocalique palatale par i ou  e),"  Scando-Slavica, 19:207-215.

Grannes, Alf, Kjetil Ra Hauge, and Hayriye Suleymanoglu (2002). A Dictionary of Turkisms in Bulgarian.  Oslo: Novus Verlag (Instituttet for Sammenlingnende Kulturforskning)

Grigor'ev, V. G. (1952). "Bolgarskoe pisateli v bor'be protive turkizmov," Uch. zap. LGU. no. 161, Seriya  filol. nauk, 18:149-172.

Gűlensoy, Tuncer (1993). Rumeli Ağızlarının Ses Bilgisi Űzerine bir Deneme. Kayseri: Erciyeş Űniversitesi.

__________ (1981). Anadolu ve Rumeli Ağızları Bibliografyası (Anadolu-Kıbrıs-Suriye-İrak- Bulgaristan-Yugoslavya ve Romanya Tűrk Ağızları).  Ankara: Kűltűr ve Turizm Bakanlığı Milli Folklor Araştırma Dairesi.

Gűlensoy, Tuncer/Ercan Alkaya (2003). Tűrkiye Tűrkçesi Ağızları Bibliografyası. Ankara: Akçağ Yayınları. Bu eserde yer alan Bulgaristan’da Tűrk ağızlariyle ilgili mezuniyet tezleri, pp. 155-188:

1.      Lilyana Borislava, "Most Kőyűnde Tűrk Konuşması"

2.      Hılmiye Faikova, "Kumaniga Ağzı"

3.      Isa Cebeci, "Grandnitsa Ağzı"

4.      Lűtfi Cinaliyev, "Kuzeydoğu Bulgaristan’ın Hlebarevo Kőyűnde Konuşulan Tűrk Ağzı"

5.      Mustafa Mustanov, "Braniçevo Ağzı"

6.      Hűseyin Rűstemov, "Milino Ağzı"

7.      Ahmet Saliyev, "Duran Kőyű Tűrk Ağzı"

8.      Recep Şabanov, "Mıdrevo Ağzı"

9.      Fehim Şakirov, "Nova Mahala Ağzı"

10.  Gűlbiye Zekeriyeva, "Gorsko Slivovo’da Konuşulan Tűrk Ağzı"

11.  Remziye Yakubova, "Harmanlı Şehri Tűrk Ağzı"

Gűneş, Nurcihan (2011). "Bulgaristan Tűrklerinin dil durumu," Modern Tűrklűk Araştırmaları Dergisi, 8 (3).

Gűzel, Abdurahman (1996). Vidin Tűrk ağızları űzerine çalışmalar hakkında, I. UTDK 1988 Bildiriler, pp. 399-406. Ankara.

Gŭlŭbov, G. (1954). Gramatika na Turskiya Ezik. Fonetika, Morfologiya i Sintaksis. Sofia: Nauka i Izkustvo.

Guzev, V. G. (1962). "Opisanie Turetskogo govora sela Krepça, Tirgovišenskogo okrugu v Bolgarii,"  Balkansko Ezikoznanie, 5 (2):57-85.

Hafiz, Nimetullah (1990). Bulgaristan Tűrk Halk Edebiyatı Metinleri, 2 vols. Ankara: Kűltűr Bakanlığı.

__________ (1987). Bulgaristan'da Çağdaş Tűrk Edebiyatı Antolojisi, 1944-1984, Vols.1&2. Ankara: Kűltűr ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları.

__________ (1989). Bulgaristan'da Çağdaş Tűrk Edebiyatı Antolojisi, 1944-1984, Vol. 3. Ankara: Kűltűr Bakanlığı Yayınları.

__________ (1979). "Kosovo Mitrovicası, Vucitirin ve Priştine Tűrk ağızlarının başlıca őzellikleri, Çevren, 6 (1-2):75-91.

__________ (1976). "Prizren (Kosova) Tűrk ağzının başlıca őzellikleri," Çevren, 4:29-35.

Haksoz, Cengiz (2008). "Minority language education and ethno-linguistic identity: thye case of the Turkish minority in the post-communist Bulgaria." In I. Paraskasis and A. Luneski, eds. Infusing Research and Knowledge in South-East Europe. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual South-East European Doctoral Student Conference (26-27 June 2008), Vol. I, pp. 297-309. Salonica: South-East Europeaqn Research Center.

Hasan, Hamdi (1997). Makedonya ve Kosovo Tűrklerince Kullanılan Atasőzleri ve Deyimler. Ankara: Tűrk Dili Kurumu Yayınları, 685.

Hazai, G. (1983). Po odnos upotrebata na makedonizmite vo leksikata na Gostivarskiot turski govor. Skopje: Bigorski Naučno-kulturni Sobori.

_________ (1977). "Zur rolle des Serbischen im verkehr des Osmanischen reiches mit Osteuropa im 15-16 Jahrundert." Eurasia Nostratica. Fetschrift fun Karl Heinrich Menges. Wiesbaden, pp. 82-88.

_________ (1969).  "Za nekoi fonološki izmeni vo govorot na turskoto naselenie vo Gostivarsko," Godišen Sbornik na Filosofskiot Fakultet, pp. 237-244.

_________ (1968). "Probleme und aufgaten der Balkan-Turkologie (spraschwissenschaft)," Actes du Premier Congres International des Etudes Balkanique et Sud-est Europeennes, vol 4. Sofia: Academie Bulgare des Sciences, pp. 95-100.

_________ (1964). "O nekatoryh actualnyh voprosah issledonaniy balkano-tureckih dialektov," Balkansko Ezikoznanie, 9.

__________ (1963). "Tursko-makedonski leksički vkrstuvana i mešana," Godišen Sbornik na Filosofskiot Fakultet, 15:349-384.

_________ (1961). "Remarques sur les rapports des langues des Balkans avec le turc osmanli," Studia  Slavica, 7:97-138.

_________ (1960). "Textes turcs du Rhodope,"  Acta Orientalia, 10 (2)185-229.

_________ (1960a). "Beitrage zur Kenntnis der tűrkischen mundarten Mazedoniens," RO, 22:83-100.

__________ (1960b). "Rumeli ağızları"

__________ (1959). "Les dialectes turcs du Rhodope," Acta Orientalia, 9 (2):205-22.

_________   ?  "Tűrk ağızlarının tarihi űzerine," Tűrk Dili Araştırmaları Yıllığı, Belleten, pp. 205-221.

Ilčev, Stefan et al. (1982). Rečnik na Čuzhdite Dumi v Bŭlgarskiya Ezik. Sofia: Izdatelstvo na BAN.

Iliev, At. T. (1917). "Turski izgovor na bŭlgarski mestni imena," Spisanie na BAN, 14:103-128.

Ireček, K. (1890). "Nyakolko beležki vŭrkhu ostatŭtsite ot Pečenezi, Kumani, kakto i tuy narečenite Gagauzi i Sŭrguši v dnešna Bŭlgariya," Periodičesko Spisanie, 32-3:211-241.

Kakuk, Suzanne (1972). "Le dialect d'Ohrid en Macedoine," Acta Orientalia Akademia e Scientarum Hungaricae, 24 (2-3):227-282.

__________ (1961). "Die tűrkische mundart aur Kustendil und Michajlovgrad," ALH, 11 (3-4):301-386.

__________ (1961). "Tűrkische volkmarchen aus Kűstendil," AUJ , 23 (1-2):90-94.

__________ (1958). "Le dialecte turc de Kazanlyk,"  Acta Orientalia, 8 (2): 167-187, (3):241-311.

Kalay, Emin (1998). Edirne Ili Ağızları. Ankara: TDK Yayınları.

Karahűseyinova, Emennas (1970). Sevar Ağzı. Basılmamış Mezuniyet tezi. Sofia.

Katona, L. (1969). "Le dialecte turc de la Macedonine de l"ouest," TDAY, pp. 57-194.

Kazasis, Kostas (1969). "The status of Turkisms in the present-day Balkan languages." In H. Birnbaum  and  Speros Vryonis, eds. Aspects of the Balkans: Continuity and Change. The Hague:  Mouton, pp. 87-116.

Keesan, C. (1979). "Renarration in Turkish and Macedonian: a study in the borrowing of verbal categories," Makedonski Jazik, 30.

Kőprűlű, M. Fuat (1934). "Şımalışarki Bulgaristanda Tűrkler ve Tűrk dili," Tűrk Dili ve Edebiyatı  Hakkında Araştırmalar, pp. 293-310.

Kowalski, T. (1940). "Rinkampfe bei den Balkantűrken," Annali del R. Instituto Superior Orientale di Napoli, Nuova Serie, 1.

________ (1938). "Les elements ethniques turcs de la Dobrudja," Rocznik Orientalistyczny, 14:66-80. (Translated into Turkish under the title, "Dobrucada Turk Etnik Unsurlar," Turk Dili-Turkce-Fransizca Belleten, 2 (13-15), Ankara, 1942)

________ (1933). Kuzeydoğu Bulgaristan Tuzluk Bőlgesinde Konuşulan Tűrk Ağızlarının Őzellikleri.

__________ (1933). Les Turcs et la Langue Turque de la Bulgarie du Nord-Est.  Memoires de la  Commission Orientaliste de l'Academie des Sciences de Cracovie, No. 16. Krakow:  Polska Akademja Umiejetnosci.

_________ (1932). "Tűrkische Volkstratsel aus Nordbulgarien," Festschrift fur Georg Jacob, pp. 128-145. (Leipzig)

_________ (1929-1930). "Wyciexzka dialektologiczna do polnonowschodniej Bulgarji," Rocznik  Orjentalistyczny, 7:322-323.

__________ (1926). "Osmanisch-tűrkische Volkslieder aus Mazedonie," ZKM, 33:166-231.

__________ (1919). Zagadki Ludowe Tureckie. Krakow.

________ Date ? "Osmanisch-tűrkische dialecte," Enziklopaedie des Islam, 4:991-1011.

Krŭsteva, Vesela (2003). Tŭlkoven Rečnik na Turcizmite v Bŭlgarski Ezik s Ilyustroviten Material ot Literaturata, Folklora, Presata, Radio i Televiziyata. Sofia: Skorpio.

__________ (2000). Rečnik na Turskite Dumi v Sŭvremenniya Bŭlgarski Pečat. Sofia: LakovPRES.

Kyuchukov, H. Kyuchukov, Hristo (2006). "Code-switching among Muslim Roms in Bulgaria," International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 79:41-51.

__________ (2002). "Code-switching among trilingual Turkish-speaking Roma children in Bulgaria," Psychology of Language and Communication, 6 (1), pp.75-84.

__________ (1994a). Podgotovka za Ogramotyavane v Usloviya na Bilinguizmi pri Deca Turčeta i Ciganite v Predučilištna Vŭzrast.  Sofia: Univ. Izd-vo Sv. Kliment Okhridski.

__________ (1994d). "The Turkish dialects of Muslim Roms (Gypsies) in Bulgaria," Journal of Turkology, 2(2):305-307.

__________ (1994e). "Bilingualism by birth," Dil Dergisi, 20:44-47.

Kyuvlieva, Vesa (1980). "Morfologična adaptaciya i asimilatsiya na turskite zaemki - sŭstavitelni i prelegatelni - v bŭlgarski ezik," Izvestiya na Instituta za Bŭlgarski Ezik, 24:78-136.

Lakova, Meri (1972). "Turcismite v Rečnik na Sŭvremenniya Bŭlgarski Knižoven Ezik ot stilistična gledna točka," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 22 (1-2).

__________ (1970). "Struktura na glagolite ot turski proizkhod v bŭlgarski ezik," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 20 (5).

Makedonska, S. (1966). "Turski frazeologični zaemki v Bŭlgarski ezik," Bŭlgarski Ezik, 16  (4):322-339.

Mamut, E.  (1975). "Dobruca Tűrk ağızlarında Osmanlıca-Tűrkçe Unsurlar," I. Tűrk Dili Bilimsel Kurultayına Sunualan Bildiriler, Ankara, 27-29 Eylűl 1972, pp. 359-367.

Manevič, T. (1953 1954). "Prilog proučvanya govora Yuruka u Madeoniyi," Yuzhnoslovenski Filolog, 20 (13):333-341, 14:333-340.

Mansuroğlu, Mecdut (1960). "Edirne ağzında yapı, anlam, deyim ve sőz dizimi őzellikleri," Tűrk Dili Araştırmaları  Yıllığı Belleten, pp. 181-187.

Markov, B. (1977). "Nekoi aspekti ot sliyanieto na turskiot ezik," Makedonski Yazik, 28.

Memova-Suleymanova, Hayriye (1983). "Fonetično, morfologična i semantična kharakteristika n slavyanskite zaemki v turskiya ezik (s ogled na narodnite govori v Turciya)," Izdanie na Sofyiskiya Universitet, pp. 119-129.

__________ (1981). "Leksikalni zaemki v turskiya ezik ot bŭlgarskiya i ot drugite slavyanski ezici," Sŭpostavitelno Ezikoznanie, 3-5:105-135.

__________ (1976a). Tűrk Dili Ses Bilgisi. Sofia: Kliment Okhridski Batı Filolojiler Fakűltesi.

__________ (1976b). "Za turcizmite v publikaciyata na Zakhari Stoyanov," Godišnik na Sofiyskiya Universitet, Fakultet po Klasičeski i Novi Filologii, 70 (3):57-70.

Menges, Karl H. (1970, 1977, 1979). "Zum neuen Bulgarski etimologichen rechnik und der tűrkischen elementen im Bulgarischen," Zeitschrift fur Balknalogie, 7:55-83; 13:173-193; 15:51-88.

__________ (1968). "Tűrkisches Sparchgut im Serbo-Kroatischen," Ural-Altaische Jahrbucher, 40 (1-2):135-154.

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Copyright 2000-2014, Ali Eminov, Wayne State College, Wayne, Nebraska USA
Created January 13th, 2000; Last updated: January 10, 2014